Scientific and Technical Bulletin
No 12 December 2007
The European Union and Its Languages
Abstract: We are interested in the European Union, as a unity formed on the background of some treaties as Romania is already part of it. Within this complex family, the small languages have to face the “battle” with widely spoken languages, the so called international ones. Are the former going to loose ground in the favor of the latter is a problem history of Europe will prove in the coming years.
Keywords: European Union; sovereignty; European Monetary system; cultural entity; federalist union; continental alliance
Cultural identity and integration
Abstract: In the present paper the author deals with the concept of cultural identity and analyses the process of European integration without resorting to premises such as feelings or spiritual experiences as they are circumstancial and transitory.The concept of cultural identity as a theoretical model is based on the principle of logical identity and therefore the present study th relies on definitions and on the anlayis of identity ontologically as well as in domain of human and social action. Cultural identity is conceived with respect to the theoretical and practical resoning.
Keywords: identity, cultural identity, theoretical reasoning, practical reasoning, modeling
Odeta Manuela Belei, Simona Redes
Success and Failure in Scott Fitzgerald’s Work
Abstract:Enjoying fame and success during his lifetime, ignored by most critics after his death, Scott Fitzgerald is nevertheless a serious writer, whose literary achievements still cause contradictory reactions and different critical positions. Deriving from the very corn of his complex fiction, this inconsistency of judging Fitzgerald may be taken as a proof of his worthiness as a writer.
Keywords: American Dream, Jazz Age, Complex Fiction, Lost Generation, Twenties
Literature in the Function of Multiculturalism
Abstract: Multiculturalism and multilingualism of European Union, as well as of Europe in general are its invaluable wealth. According to the two mentioned values European Union could be compared with the onetime Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the state in which numerous languages used to be spoken, with German language as official, one through which all representatives of different nations living in this state, and native speakers of various languages could communicate. A parallel could also be drawn regarding interaction which used to exist between German and other languages of the monarchy, i.e. English and smaller European languages. These relations used to be represented in the domain of theatre, as well. The paper will consider the phenomenon from the angle of Vrsac Town Theatre.
Keywords: multiculturalism, German drama, Vrsac Town Theatre.
Diachronic Cultural Determination of Personality in European Integrations and Multiculturalism as Educational Values
Abstract: Europe has put a lot of effort to form European Union on democratic principles. These tendencies have up to now had signs of elegancy, at least for us looking from aside. It might be that those from within have been in a better position to see the price of the idea. However, it seems to us that the idea is worth trying, with multiculturalism as pedagogical value taking a special place in it. In spite of the fact that this value has many angles, we will deal only with its pedagogical one in the paper.
Keywords: European Union, democracy, multiculturalism, pedagogical values, national and universal culture.
Abstract : Studies of the social background of Austen ‘s work and of the influence of that background on that work are necessary ,for the English novel depends on society and public agreement and about what life is.
Jane Austen emerged as a writer of the last decades of the eighteenth century and of the first two decades of the following one. Therefore, her work consists of mixed elements taken from the previous writers and, at the same time, establishes the future of the narrative structure of the nineteenth century writers.
In Persuasion the key words Persuation and Autumn are used to describe the inner qualities of the main character , Ann.. Austen is a master of indirect speech and of the long complex sentences. Sometimes her treatment of dialogue is editorial than an exercise in recording and she rarely gives an idea of how her characters speak or behave.
Keywords: theme, persuasion, autumn, inner qualities, indirectness.
Some Considerations on Mood and Modality in Romanian and English based on the 2005 edition of the Grammar of the Academy
Abstract : The issue of mood and modality is often difficult to tackle in comparative linguistics. That is why the recent approach of the Grammar of the Romanian Language (2005) concerning modality and modalization builds some bridges between the grammatical systems of Romanian and English. As shown in this study, a theoretical organisation of the modal systems of Romanian and English according to modalities (epistemic and deontic) could be of more use for comparative purposes than the traditional approach which merely tried to find equivalents for the Romanian verbal moods into English and for the English modal verbs into Romanian.
Keywords: mood, modality, verbal category, epistemic modality, deontic modality
The Study of Word Order and Its Stylistic Implications
Abstract: The artistic language uses all the lexical- grammatical units of the language, and there are situations in which the grammatical marks are able to become stylistic marks and the grammatical meaning becomes a component of signification, thus determining stylistically the appearance of the stylistic particularities.
The stylistic plane of the author blends with the narrative plane in syntactic figures specific to direct speaking, indirect speaking and free indirect speaking.
The topics become a modality of artistic signification and for the stylistic mark of the text they develop rhythmic structures and significant (important) images as nominal enunciation or verbal or adverbial or interjection phrases, syntactic relations and syntactic or construction figures.
Keywords: artistic language, stylistic particularities, grammar, semantic- stylistic mark.
Correlation Problems in Lingual-Artistic Field
Abstract: A view can be described in words or painted in colours, while again a paining can be described, just as a description can be painted or "illustrated", and so on. Even if a description or a painting is done with a firm intention of not twisting the original, the descriptions, as well as the paintings will differ. At the same time, it will be possible to recognize a common topic, as well as some other similarity, like typical language of a writer or painter's recognizable way of painting. However, no matter how similar they are, the paintings, as well as the descriptions will live their own, separate, independent lives.
Such a way of communication is not a game without allure; it certainly in a way incites imagination and offers various results. Its stage brings something new and original in the game. Most of the unexpectedness, especially with children, is contributed to “creative abilities” – although there are as manyreasons to contribute the exceptions to the original to “perceptive abilities”.
Keywords: typical language, visual art pedagogy, psychology of perception, artistic work, educational values of creativity.
Forming of Communicative Competences of Students in Bilingual Teaching
Abstract: Pedagogical phenomenon of forming verbal communicative competences requires special responsibilities through elaboration of specific formative activities, dictated by the fact that communication presupposes a relationship, information exchange, continuous adjustment process. The mentioned fact has not been sufficiently applied in educational praxis at the level of Romanian language learning in Serbia by students who attend bilingual schools. Experiential framework demands creation of communicative context in the classroom itself, assuming learning within which a student should feel and be aware of the need of communicational inter-relations.
Keywords: communicative competences, formative activities, bilingual teaching, communicational inter-relations.
Der Einfluss des Englischen auf die deutsche Sprache
Abstract: The study focuses on the influence of English upon German. German words have been replaced by English words in different fields. The most common procedures are the replacement of German words with English words and word for word translations from one language into the other. There is also a growing tendency to use the English spelling of certain words although German has its own spelling rules.
Keywords: Anglizismus, Wortlehnungen, Lehnübertragungen, Lehnübersetzungen, Pseudoanglizismen
The Numeral in Romanian and English
Abstract: Numerals are a “closest set of simple forms which can be used to build up an indefinite number of more complex forms”. They are to be found in noun phrases as heads or determiners and gave specific morphological and syntactical characteristics.
This paper has in view a brief comparison of them in two different languages, namely English and Romanian, the two belonging to different language families, namely Germanic and Latin.
Keywords: numeral; cardinal, ordinal; morphemes;
Secondary Morphological Adaptation of Anglicisms in Serbian
Abstract: Rather than creating a new word or a coinage, a Serbian language speaker will always reach for a word of English origin. Consequently, we have been facing a flood of anglicisims in our everyday language. On the other hand, productivity of Serbian language has been reflected in the secondary adaptation of anglicisms. Once borrowed into Serbian, an anglicism gradually becomes adapted to its system and behaves like a native word. The final stage of the complex and successive process of integrating a word from a giving language (i.e. English) into the system of receiving language (Serbian) is the stage of replica, when a loanword becomes a fully adapted anglicism. A replica can be subjected to new modifications of various kinds in accordance with the structure of the receiving language. These changes occur in the process of secondary adaptation which takes places in the receiving language and is governed by its word-formation rules while using only its recourses to form new words.
The author of the paper makes efforts to establish productive morphological processes of secondary adaptation of anglicisms in Serbian language, according to a selection of words recently borrowed from English language.
Keywords: anglicisims, language, replica, morphological level, secondary adaptation.
The Influence of Informational Technologies, in the First Place Internet, on "Small" Languages
Abstract: In spite of the fact that they, among other things, propagate multiculturalism and multilingualism, hiding the real reasons for their existence, globalization and other prevailing contemporary tendencies, find ideal grounds in informational technologies. The development of informational technologies in a simple way and deceptively has been offering the image of all people equality. On the one hand, English language used to be the basis of all informational technology, as well as internet itself, penetrating each and every other world language, while, on the other hand, many further steps have been made, in the sense that a great deal of sites has been translated into local languages, or has started to offer a certain number of options in local languages. The paper deals with concrete cases of internet sites which have been localized, trying to estimate to what an extent they really and truly contain local languages, not anglicisms.
Keywords: informational technologies, internet, web site, localization.